The Stone Age
By Pronali Mukherjee
The stone age in India can be said to be started between 500,000 to 200,000 years ago, the remains of the Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate the same and in the current researches in Tamil Nadu (at C. 75000 years ago before and after the explosion of the Toba Volcano) tells the presence of the first anatomical humans in the area. In the north western part of the subcontinent tools were found that was crafted by the proto-humans and can be dated back to two million years ago. The early history of the area involves few of the South Asia’s ancient settlements and a few of its key civilisations. The Soan River Valley with their Palaeolithic hominid site is one of the earliest archaeological sites in the subcontinent. These Soanian sites are found in the Shivalik regions across what are now India, Pakistan and Nepal.
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The Neolithic period took after the Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent, when more broad settlement of the subcontinent happened after the end of the last Ice Age give or take 12000 years prior. The initially affirmed semi lasting settlements seemed 9,000 years back in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in advanced Madhya Pradesh, India. Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is spoken to by the Bhirrana discoveries (7500 BCE) in Haryana, India & Mehrgarh discoveries (7000–9000 BCE) in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
Hints of a Neolithic society have been affirmed to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat in India, radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE. Neolithic rural societies sprang up in the Indus Valley locale around 5000 BCE, in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE, and in later South India, spreading southwards furthermore northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. The principal urban civilisation of the locale started with the Indus Valley Civilisation.
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